Who are the Muslims? Geography , Humanity , Mathematics , Medicine

Friday, January 10, 2014
More than one and a half billion people of all races , nationalities and cultures one and a half billion - a continuation of the Muslim contribution to science .
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Muslim scholars have paid great attention to geography. In fact, a major concern of Muslims by geography originated with their religion. The Qur'an encourages people to travel around the country to see God's signs and patterns everywhere. Islam also requires each Muslim to have at least enough knowledge of geography to know the direction of the Qibla ( the position of the Kaaba in Mecca) to pray five times a day . Muslims have also been used to make long trips to trade and make the Hajj and spread their religion . 

The Islamic empire away - threw browsers enabled scientists to collect large amounts of geographical and climatic information from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Muslims
Among the most famous in the field of geography names , even in the West , are Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Batuta , renowned for their written accounts of their extensive explorations .
In 1166, Al- Idrisi , the well-known Muslim scholar who served the Sicilian court produced very accurate maps , including a world map with all continents and their mountains, rivers and famous cities . Al- Muqdishi was the first geographer to produce accurate card color.

He was , moreover , with the help of Muslim navigators and their inventions that Magellan was able to traverse the Cape of Good Hope , and Da Gama and Columbus had Muslim navigators on board their ships. Muslims

Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islam for every Muslim man and woman . The main sources of Islam , the Koran and the Sunna (tradition of the Prophet Muhammad ) , encourage Muslims to seek knowledge and be scholars , since this is the best way for people to know Allah (God) to appreciate their wonderful creations and be thankful for them . Muslims were therefore eager to acquire knowledge, both religious and secular , and within a few years of Muhammad's mission , a great civilization arose and flourished. The result is shown in the spread of 

Islamic universities, Al- Zaytunah in Tunis, and Al- Azhar in Cairo go back more than 1,000 years and are the oldest existing universities in the world. In fact, the models were the first European universities , such as Bologna , Heidelberg, and the Sorbonne . Even the familiar and original dress to the University of Al- Azhar academic cap . Muslims

Muslims have made ​​great progress in many fields, such as geography , physics , chemistry , mathematics , medicine , pharmacology , architecture , linguistics and astronomy. Algebra and the Arabic numerals were introduced to the world by Muslim scholars . The astrolabe , the quadrant , and other navigational devices and maps were developed by Muslim scholars and played an important role in the progress of the world, especially in the era of European exploration . Muslims
Muslim scholars studied the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome to China and India. Works of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid and others d have been translated into Arabic. Muslim scholars and scientists then added their own creative ideas, discoveries and inventions, and finally transmitted this new knowledge to Europe , leading directly to the Renaissance. Many scientific and medical treatises , having been translated into Latin , were textbooks and standard reference as late as the 17th and 18th centuries.
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It is interesting to note that Islam so strongly urges mankind to study and explore the universe. For example , the Holy Quran says:
"We ( Allah) you ( mankind ) Our signs / patterns in the horizons / universe and show you until you are convinced that the revelation is the truth. " (Quran 14:53)
This invitation to explore and search made ​​Muslims interested in astronomy , mathematics , chemistry and other sciences , and they had a very clear and firm understanding of the connections between geometry , mathematics and astronomy.
Muslims invented the symbol for zero (The word " cipher " comes from Arabic sifr ) , and numbers in the decimal system is organized - the base 10. In addition , the symbol was invented to express an unknown quantity , ie variables like x .
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The first great Muslim mathematician, Al- Khawarizmi , invented the subject of algebra ( al - Jabr ), which was developed by others, including Omar Khayyam . The work of al- Khwarizmi , Latin translation , has Arabic numerals with mathematics to Europe through Spain . The word " algorithm " is derived from his name. Muslims Islamic
Muslim mathematicians excelled also in geometry, as can be seen in their graphic arts, and was the great Al- Biruni ( who excelled also in the fields of natural history, even geology and mineralogy) who established trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics. Other Muslim mathematicians made ​​significant progress in number theory .
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In Islam , the human body is a source of satisfaction, as it is created by God Almighty (God). How it works , how to keep it clean and safe, how to prevent diseases from attacking or cure those diseases , have been important issues for Muslims . Islamic
Prophet Muhammad , peace and blessings of God be upon him, said:
"God created no illness, but established a cure , except for old age. When the antidote is applied, the patient will recover with the permission of God. "
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It was a strong motivation to encourage Muslims to explore , develop and apply empirical laws scientists. Great attention to medicine and public health was given . The first hospital was built in Baghdad in 706 AC . Muslims also used camel caravans as mobile hospitals , which moved from one place to another. Muslims
Because religion forbid, Muslim scholars used human cadavers to study anatomy and physiology and to help their students understand how the body works . This empirical study enabled surgery to develop very quickly.

Al- Razi , known in the West as Razi , the famous physician and scientist, (d. 932 ) was one of the greatest physicians in the world in the Middle Ages. He stressed empirical observation and clinical medicine and was unrivaled as a diagnostician . He also wrote a treatise on hygeine in hospitals. Khalaf Abul- Qasim Al- Zahrawi was a very famous surgeon in the eleventh century , known in Europe for his work , Concessió ( Kitab al - Tasrif ) . Muslims Islamic

Ibn Sina (d. 1037 ), better known in the West as Avicenna, was perhaps the greatest physician until the modern era . His famous book, Al- Qanun fi al - Tibb , remained a standard textbook even in Europe, more than 700 years. Ibn Sina 's work is still studied and developed in the East. Muslims

Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology , such as Kitab al- Shifa Ibn Sina ' 
( Book of Healing ) , and public health . Every major city in the Islamic world had a number of excellent hospitals , some of them teaching hospitals , and many of them specialize in particular diseases, including mental and emotional. The Ottomans were particularly noted for their building of hospitals and for the high level of hygeine practiced in them.
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